Different Types of medicinal preparations in Ayurveda.

Ayurveda the knowledge of life have described the entire Ayurveda in different segments. Bhaishyaja Kalpana and Rasa Shastra are among them. This two subjects deals with e manufacturing methods and preparations of different herbal, mineral and herbo-mineral drugs. Thus the whole Ayurvedic medicines are classified in different types according to their method of preparation and their nature. Here i am going to tell you about the different categories of ayurvedic medicine:

AVALEHA AND PAK:

Avaleha or leha is prepared by repeatedly boiling the decoction and extract of a drug and condensing with sugar. The preparation which can be taken by licking is called avaleha.
Example Chavanprash, Vasavaleha etc.

BHASMA:

Powder of a substance obtained by calcination is called Bhasma. The process of oxidation of the raw materials by heating is regulated scientifically. The raw materials for manufacturing Bhasmas are subjected to test and analysis before processing. The 18 processes in Indian chemistry namely Shodhan, Maran, Jaran, Triyakptan, Urdhvapatan, Adhahpatan, Niyaman, Bodhan, etc are strictly followed while manufacturing different preparations under modern conditions.
Example Louha Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma etc.

CHURNA:

Churna is a coarse powder made by certain drugs or combination of drugs. Ayurvedic medicines derived from plants are prepared either in the form of powder or decoction. Before these plants are subjected to processing, they are thoroughly examined by specialists and proper identification is made and each of the ingredients is pulverized separately.
Example: Lavan Bhaskar Churna, Avipattikar Churna etc.

VATI:

The ingredients which have been evolved from plants are pulverized initially and then added to honey or any other liquid to make pills and tablets. After mixing this preparation are either dried directly under the sun or by indirect heat. it is nothing but the modern tablet formulations. 
Example: Bhuktapak Vati, Brhami Vati. 

MEDICATED GHRITA:

These are the preparations in which ghee is boiled with prescribed drugs according to the formula. The medicated Ghrita are more effective than ordinary Ghritas. In order to prepare it in accordance with Ayurvedic system, Ghrita of a particular animal is subjected to several processing after which Kwath, milk, etc. are added with proper proportion and slowly heated with controlled temperature. The medicated Ghrita is made by following strict principles according to the Ayurvedic guidelines.
Example Brhami Ghrita, Shatadhuta Ghrita. Panchatikta Grita.

GUGGULU:

Guggulu is an exudate obtained from the plant commiphora mukul. Preparations having the exudate as main effective ingredient are known as guggulu. In order to purify the best quality of guggulu, it is necessary to pulverize it at least by a lac stroke. The mixed ingredients with guggulu are effective in various diseases.
Example Punarnavadhi Guggulu, Swarna Guggulu etc.

KUPIPAKWA RASAYANA:

Kupipakwa Ras is prepared in combination with shuddha parad, gandhak and other prescribed drugs. According to the Ayurvedic system. Kupipakwa Ras that gets deposited at the neck of the phila is called 'Urdhva Laghna, and the one at the bottom is called 'Talastha' Kupipakwa Ras. Kupipakwa Ras is incorporated with the main ingredient and remains in micro-molecular form. When matured with time, it possesses immense potentiality and is a valuable remedy for chronic and almost incurable ailments.
Example Rasasindur, 

LAUH-MANDOOR:

These are the preparations containing purified mandoor along with other drugs. Its efficacy is enhanced when used separately or mixed with another preparation and thereby promoting sustained ection in the system.
Example Mandur Bhasma. 

PARPATI:

It is prepared by mixing purified mercury with sulphur i.e. Kajali or with other drugs mentioned in formula and subjecting them to heat according to the Ayurvedic principles. During the process, the whole mass takes the shape of a cocktail which is indicative of perfection. Due to the presence of mercury and sulphur in combination, the drug has the efficacy to kill bacteria.
Example Sweta Parpati, 

PISHTI:

The ingredients prescribed in the texts are grinded into fine particles in a pestle and mortar made of Muguni stone and triturating it with rose water for 8, 14, or 21 days, drying them at night or in the day time It is therefore, either called 'Chandraputit' or 'Suryaputra' accordingly. The adjuncts are used exactly the same way as those of Bhasma.
Example Mukta Pisti.

RAS-RASAYAN:

The preparation contains mineral drugs as main ingredients. Mercury, sulphur, vatsanabha, hingul, tankan, alum, kuchila, opium, datura, siddhi and jayphal are fully tested and purified. The process is undertaken such that it gives more effect in small doses. While processing the tablets in finer forms the ingredients attain special effectiveness in the treatment of diseases.
Example Brahmi Rasayan, Amalaki Rasayan. 

MEDICATED OIL:

The process of preparing medicated oils includes addition of kwath, swaras and kalka. The mixture is then exposed in a regulated temperature. The oils are boiled along with certain drugs as prescribed in the formula. These oils have the property and efficacy almost in the same manner as of the medicines. It is used generally for injunction and massage.
Example Bala Taila, Mahavishgarbha Oil.

PRAVAHI KWATH:

Pravahi Kwath are water decoctions in different concentrations. Kwath is also known as decoction which is freshly prepared from herbs by boiling in 4 times of water.
Example Dashmool kwath, Mahamanjistadhi Kwath.

ARK:

Ark is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or drugs soaked in water, using the arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation apparatus.
Example Godhan Ark, Saunf Ka Ark.

SHODHIT DRAVYA AND SATIVA:

Satva is water extractable solid substance collected from a drug. The drug is cut into small pieces macerated in water and kept overnight. It is then strained through a cloth and the solid matter is allowed to settle. The supernatant liquid is decanted and satva is washed by repeating the process
The satva is then dried and powdered.
Example Giloy Satva, Gandhak Shodit.

ASAVA AND ARISHTA:

Decoction or water extract is made from the crude drug Jaggery and astringents such as Dhatakipushp, Babul etc. are mixed for a certain period.Under this process, fermentation takes place and these original drugs undergo chemical changes and develop into a preparation called Asava Arishta. It is a high potency clear liquid with a pleasant odour.


** Copied content from Therapeutic Guide Dabur.

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